SIRT1 activator CAS#: 10083-24-6 Citations: 1) Seow et al. (2002), Piceatannol, a Syk-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, attenuated antigen challenge of guinea pig airways in vitro.; Eur. J. Pharmacol., 443 189. / 2) Howitz et al. (2003), Small molecule activators of sirtuins extend Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan; Nature, 425 191

Cellular protectant CAS#: 20537-88-6 Citations: 1) Capizzi et al. (2000), Chemoprotective and radioprotective effects of amifostine: an update of clinical trials; Int. J. Hematol., 72 425 / 2) Provinciali et al. (1999), In vivo amifostine (WR-2721) prevents chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from cancer patients; Life Sci., 64 1525 / Koukourakis et al. (2004), Amifostine before chemotherapy: improved tolerance profile of the subcutaneous over the intravenous route.; Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol., 53 8 / 4) Mauri restores transcriptional activity of specific p53 mutant proteins in a yeast functional assayci et al. (2001), Amifostine (WR2721; Oncogene, 20 3533

Serine protease inhibitor CAS#: 402-71-1 Citations: 1) Bond and Butler, (1987) Intracellular proteases Annu.Rev.Biochem. 56 333 / 2) Grammer and Blenis (1996) The serine protease inhibitors, tosylphenylalanine chloromethylketone and tosyllysine chloromethylketone, potently inhibit pp70s6k activation J.Biol.Chem 271 23650

Antioxidant CAS#: 20283-92-5 Citations: 1) Miliauskas et al. (2005), Identification of radical scavenging compounds in Rhaponticum carthamoids by means of LC-DAD-SPE-NMR; J. Nat. Prod., 68 168 2) Sahu et al. (1999), Inhibition of complement by covalent attachment of rosmarinic acid to activated C3b; Biochem. Pharmacol, 57 1439 3) Ono et al. (2012), Phenolic compounds prevented amyloid β-protein oligomerization and synaptic dysfunction by site-specific binding; J. Biol. Chem., 287 14631 4) Deng et al. (2012), Multiple tyrosine metabolites are GPR35 agonists; Sci. Rep., 2 373

Glutathione peroxidase mimic CAS#: 60940-34-3 Citations: 1) Schewe et al. (1995), Molecular actions of ebselen – an anti-inflammatory antioxidant; Gen. Pharmacol., 26 1153 / 2) Parnham et al. (2000), Ebselen: prospective therapy for cerebral ischaemia; Expert. Opin. Investig. Drugs, 9 607 / 3) Masumoto et al. (1996), Kinetic study of the reaction of ebselen with peroxynitite; FEBS Lett., 398 179 / 4) Nakamura et al. (2002), Ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase mimetic seleno-organic compound, as a multifunctional antioxidant. Implication for inflammation-associated carcinogenesis; J. Biol. Chem., 277 2687

PKC inhibitor CAS#: 123-78-4 Citations: 1) Merrill et al., (1989) Structural requirements for long-chain (sphingoid) base inhibition of protein kinase C in vitro and for the cellular effects of these compounds Biochemistry 28 3138 / 2) Ohanian and Ohanian (2001) Sphingolipids in mammalian cell signaling Cell.Mol.Life Science 58 2053 / 3) Ruvolo (2003) Intracellular signal transduction pathways activated by ceramide and its metabolites Pharm.Res. 47 383 / 4) Olivier (2002) Sphingosine in apoptosis signaling Biochim.Biophys.Acta 1585 153

Microtubule stabilizing agent CAS#: 114977-28-5 Citations: 1) Fabbri et al. (2008), Mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis induced by docetaxel in hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells; J. Cell Physiol, 217 494. / 2) Dosso and Berthold (2008), Docetaxel in the management of prostate cancer: current standard of care and future directions ; Expert Opin. Pharmacother, 9 1969 / 3) Homma et al. (2008), RPN2 gene confers docetaxel resistance in breast cancer; Nat. Med., 14 939 / 4) Kars et al. (2008), Reversal of Multidrug Resistance by Synthetic and Natural Compounds in Drug-Resistant MCF-7 Cell Lines Chemotherapy, 54 194 / 5) Wallin et al. (2012), GDC-0941, A Novel Class I Selective PI3K Inhibitor, Enhances the Efficacy of Docetaxel in Human Breast Cancer Models by Increasing Cell Death In vitro and In Vivo; Clin Cancer Res., May 14: Epub ahead of print. / 6) Heinemann et al. (2011), Synergistic effects of oncolytic reovirus and docetaxel chemotherapy in prostate cancer; BMC Cancer, 11 221

Inhibits sphingosine kinase CAS#: 119567-63-4 Citations: 1) Igarashi et al. (1990), A specific enhancing effect of N,N-dimethylsphingosine on epidermal growth factor receptor autophosphorylation. Demonstration of its endogenous occurrence (and the virtual absence of unsubstituted sphingosine) in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells; J. Biol. Chem., 265 5385 / 2) Yatomi et al. (1996), N,N-dimethylsphingosine inhibition of sphingosine kinase and sphingosine 1-phosphate activity in human platelets ; Biochemistry, 35 626 / 3) Gude et al. (2008), Apoptosis induces expression of sphingosine kinase 1 to release sphingosine-1-phosphate as a “come-and-get-me” signal ; FASEB J., 22 2629

Ca2+ ionophore CAS#: 52665-69-7 Citations: 1) Reed and Lardy (1972) A23187: a divalent cation ionophore, J. Biol. Chem. 247, 6970 / 2) Wong et al. (1973) Effects of antibiotic ionophore, A23187, on oxidative phosphorylation and calcium transport of liver mitochondria, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 156 578 / 3) Hara and Kanazawa (1986) Selective inhibition by ionophore A23187 of the enzyme isomerization in the catalytic cycle of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, J.Biol.Chem. 261 16584

NMDA, glycine site partial agonist CAS#: 68-41-7 Citations: 1) Watson et al. (1990), D-cycloserine acts as a partial agonist at the glycine modulatory site of the NMDA receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes; Brain Res., 510 158 2) Baran et al. (1994), The glycine/NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine blocks kainite-induced seizures in rats. Comparison with MK-801 and diazepam; Brain Res., 652 195 3) Löscher et al. (1994), Anticonvulsant effects of the glycine/NMDA receptor ligands D-cycloserine and D-serine but not R(+)-HA-966 in amygdala-kindled rats; Br. J. Phamracol., 112 97 4) Rouaud and Billard (2003), D-cycloserine facilitates synaptic plasticity but impairs glutamatergic neurotransmission in rat hippocampal slices; Br. J. Pharmacol., 140 1051 5) Forsyth et al. (2015), Augmenting NMDA receptor signaling boosts experience-dependnet neuroplasticity in the adult human brain; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112 15331

Induces mitochondrial permeability pore opening CAS#: 472-15-1 Citations: 1) Ehrhardt et al. (2004) Betulinic acid-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells; Leukemia, 18 1406 2) Mullauer et al. (2009) Betulinic acid induces cytochrome c release and apoptosis in Bax/Bak-independent, permeability transition pore dependent fashion.; Apoptosis, 14 191 3) Jung et al. (2007) Effect of betulinic acid on anticancer drug-resistant colon cancer cells; Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 101 277

Akt inhibitor CAS#: 522-17-8 Citations: 1) Chun et al. (2003), Effects of deguelin on the phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase/Akt pathway and apoptosis in premalignant human bronchial epithelial cells; J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 95 291 / 2) Kang et al. (2012), Deguelin, an AKT Inhibitor, Down-Regulates NFκB Signaling and Induces Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells and Inhibits Tumor Growth in Mice; Dig. Dis. Sci., May 24 (Epub) / 3) Lee et al. (2004), Molecular mechanisms of deguelin-induced apoptosis in transformed human bronchial epithelial cells; Biochem. Pharmacol., 68 1119 / 4) Ito et al. (2004), Cancer chemopreventive activity of rotenoids from Derris trifoliata; Planta Med., 70 8

Inhibits polyamine biosynthesis CAS#: 96020-91-6 Citations: 1) Verma et al. (1990), Inhibition of tumor promotion by DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine, a specific irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase; Basic Life Sci., 52 195 / 2) Takahashi et al. (2000), alpha-difluoromethylornithine induces apoptosis as well as anti-angiogenesis in the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in a human gastric cancer model; Int. J. Cancer, 85 243 / 3) Meyskens et al. (1999), Development of difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) as a chemoprevention agent; Clin. Cancer Res., 5 945

Inhibits NFkappaB activation CAS#: 104594-70-9 Citations: 1) Sud’ine, et al. (1993) Caffeic scid phenethyl ester as a lipoxygenase inhibitor with antioxidant properties. FEBS Lett. 21 329 / 2) Natarajan, et al., (1996) Caffeic acid phenethyl ester is a potent and specific inhibitor of activation of nuclear transcription factor NF-kappa B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 9090 / 3) Chiao, et al. (1995). Apoptosis and altered redox state induced by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in transformed rat fibroblast cells. Cancer Res. 55 3576 / 4) Orban et.al. (2000), Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces leukocyte apoptosis, modulates nuclear factor-kappa B and suppresses acute inflammation. Neuroimmunimodulation 7, 99

HSP70 inducer CAS#: 6809-52-5 Citations: 1) Kamal and Omran (2013) The role of heat shock protein 70 induced by geranylgeranylacetone in carbon tetrachloride-exposed adult rat testes; Pathophysiology 20 139 2) Lennikov et al. (2013) Induction of heat chock protein 70 ameliorates ultraviolet-induced photokeratitis in mice; Int.J.Mol.Sci. 14 2175 3) Adache et al. (2010) An acyclic polyisoprenoid derivative, geranylgeranylacetone, protects against visceral adiposity and insulin resistance in high fat fed mice; Am.J.Physiol.Endocrinol.Metab. 299 E764 4) Marunouchi et al. (2014) Protective effect pf geranylgeranylacetone via enhanced induction of HSPB1 and HSPB8 in mitochondria of the failing heart following myocardial infarction in rats; Eur.J.Pharmacol. 730 140

Inhibits actin polymerization and microfilament organization CAS#: 76343-93-6 Citations: 1) Coue et al. (1987), Inhibition of actin polymerization by latrunculin; FEBS Lett., 213 316 2) Spector et al. (1989), Latrunculins-novel marine macrolides that disrupt microfilament organization and affect cell growth; Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton, 13 127 3) Wang et al. (2005), Differential effects of latrunculin-A on myofibrils in cultures of skeletal muscle cells: Insights into mechanisms of myofibrillogenesis; Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton, 62 35 4) Reggiori et al. (2005), The actin cytoskeleton is required for selective types of autophagy, but not for non-specific autophagy, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Mol. Biol. Cell, 16 5843

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor CAS#: 62571-86-2 Citations: 1) Cushman et al. (1999), Design of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; Nat.Med. 5 1110 2) Orning et al. (1991), Inhibition of leukotriene A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase by captopril; J.Biol.Chem. 266 16507

Enhances apoptosis CAS#: 471-05-6 Citations: 1) Leu et al. (2009), A small molecule inhibitor of inducible heat shock protein 70; Mol. Cell, 36 15 / 2) Abdelwahab et al. (2011), Zerumbone induces apoptosis in T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells; Leuk. Res., 35 268

Caspase inhibitor CAS#: 153088-73-4 Citations: 1) Dolle et al. (1994) P1 aspartate-based peptide alpha-((2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)oxy)methyl ketones as potent time-dependent inhibitors of interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme J.Med.Chem. 37 563 / 2) Sakurada et al. (2002) A cellular mechanism that reversibly inactivates pancaspase inhibitor Z-Asp-CH(2)-DCB: a potential pitfall causing discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo caspase assays Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 291 1022