Purinergic Receptor P2Y (P2RY12) is a receptor for ADP and ATP coupled to G-proteins that inhibit the adenylyl cyclase second messenger system. P2RY12 is not activated by UDP and UTP. Required for normal platelet aggregation and blood coagulation. P2RY12 is a highly selective marker for microglia that specifically distinguishes these cells from other myeloid cells.

Purinergic Receptor P2Y (P2RY12) is a receptor for ADP and ATP coupled to G-proteins that inhibit the adenylyl cyclase second messenger system. P2RY12 is not activated by UDP and UTP. Required for normal platelet aggregation and blood coagulation. P2RY12 is a highly selective marker for microglia that specifically distinguishes these cells from other myeloid cells.

Purinergic Receptor P2Y (P2RY12) is a receptor for ADP and ATP coupled to G-proteins that inhibit the adenylyl cyclase second messenger system. P2RY12 is not activated by UDP and UTP. Required for normal platelet aggregation and blood coagulation. P2RY12 is a highly selective marker for microglia that specifically distinguishes these cells from other myeloid cells.

Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the accumulation of aggregated Aβ peptides in senile plaques and vascular deposits. Aβ peptides are derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential proteolytic cleavage of APP by β- and γ-secretases generating diverse Aβ species. Aβ can aggregate to form soluble oligomeric species and insoluble fibrillar or amorphous assemblies. Some forms of the aggregated peptides are toxic to neurons.

Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the accumulation of aggregated Aβ peptides in senile plaques and vascular deposits. Aβ peptides are derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential proteolytic cleavage of APP by β- and γ-secretases generating diverse Aβ species. Aβ can aggregate to form soluble oligomeric species and insoluble fibrillar or amorphous assemblies. Some forms of the aggregated peptides are toxic to neurons.

Tau protein promotes microtubule assembly and stability. Tau is abundant in neurons of the central nervous system, and is expressed at low levels in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Abnormal hyper-phosphorylation, aggregation, and toxic gain of function of tau is associated with several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The major building block of neurofibrillary lesions in AD brains consists of paired helical filaments (PHFs) of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau. Recent studies indicate that cerebrospinal fluid tau phosphorylated at position threonine 181 has diagnostic utility for several neurological disorders. Six isoforms of tau are generated by alternative splicing of the MAPT gene. These isoforms are distinguished by the number of tubulin binding domains, 3 (3R) or 4 (4R), in the C-terminal of the protein and by one (1N), two (2N), or no (0N) inserts in the N-terminal domain.  Tau isoforms are differentially expressed during development.

Tau protein promotes microtubule assembly and stability. Tau is abundant in neurons of the central nervous system, and is expressed at low levels in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Abnormal hyper-phosphorylation, aggregation, and toxic gain of function of tau is associated with several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The major building block of neurofibrillary lesions in AD brains consists of paired helical filaments (PHFs) of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau. Recent studies indicate that cerebrospinal fluid tau phosphorylated at position threonine 181 has diagnostic utility for several neurological disorders. Six isoforms of tau are generated by alternative splicing of the MAPT gene. These isoforms are distinguished by the number of tubulin binding domains, 3 (3R) or 4 (4R), in the C-terminal of the protein and by one (1N), two (2N), or no (0N) inserts in the N-terminal domain.  Tau isoforms are differentially expressed during development.

Neurofilaments (NF) are type IV intermediate filament heteropolymers composed of light, medium, and heavy chains. Detection of NF, and the subunits of NF, may serve as a biomarker for axonal degeneration. The degree of axonal degeneration is related to the amount of NF detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the blood. Neurofilament light (NF-L) levels are elevated in Alzheimer’s Disease.

Human full-length APP recombinant protein (a.a. 1 - 770) with 10X His-tag at the N-terminus. The protein was expressed in HEK293 cells.

Human full-length APP recombinant protein (a.a. 1 - 751) with 10x His-tag at the N-terminus. The protein was expressed in HEK293 cells.

Neurofilaments (NF) are approximately 10 nanometer intermediate filaments found in neurons. They are a major component of the neuronal cytoskeleton, and function primarily to provide structural support for the axon and regulate axon diameter. There are three major NF subunits, and the names given to these subunits are based upon the apparent molecular mass of the mammalian subunits on SDS-PAGE: the light or lowest NF (NF-L) runs at 68-70 kD; the medium or middle NF (NF-M) runs at about 145-160 kD; the heavy or highest NF (NF-H) runs at 200-220 kD. However, the actual molecular weight of these proteins is considerably lower due to the highly charged C-terminal regions of the molecules. The level of NF gene expression correlates with axonal diameter, which controls how fast electrical signals travel down the axon. Mutant mice with NF abnormalities have phenotypes resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. NF immunostaining is common in diagnostic neuropathology. It is useful for differentiating neurons (positive for NF) from glia (negative for NF).

Neurofilaments (NF) are approximately 10 nanometer intermediate filaments found in neurons. They are a major component of the neuronal cytoskeleton, and function primarily to provide structural support for the axon and regulate axon diameter. There are three major NF subunits, and the names given to these subunits are based upon the apparent molecular mass of the mammalian subunits on SDS-PAGE: the light or lowest NF (NF-L) runs at 68-70 kD; the medium or middle NF (NF-M) runs at about 145-160 kD; the heavy or highest NF (NF-H) runs at 200-220 kD. However, the actual molecular weight of these proteins is considerably lower due to the highly charged C-terminal regions of the molecules. The level of NF gene expression correlates with axonal diameter, which controls how fast electrical signals travel down the axon. Mutant mice with NF abnormalities have phenotypes resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. NF immunostaining is common in diagnostic neuropathology. It is useful for differentiating neurons (positive for NF) from glia (negative for NF).

Neurofilaments (NF) are approximately 10 nanometer intermediate filaments found in neurons. They are a major component of the neuronal cytoskeleton, and function primarily to provide structural support for the axon and regulate axon diameter. There are three major NF subunits, and the names given to these subunits are based upon the apparent molecular mass of the mammalian subunits on SDS-PAGE: the light or lowest (NF-L) runs at 68-70 kD; the medium or middle (NF-M) runs at about 145-160 kD; the heavy or highest (NF-H) runs at 200-220 kD. However, the actual molecular weight of these proteins is considerably lower due to the highly charged C-terminal regions of the molecules. The level of NF gene expression correlates with axonal diameter, which controls how fast electrical signals travel down the axon. Mutant mice with NF abnormalities have phenotypes resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. NF immunostaining is common in diagnostic neuropathology. It is useful for differentiating neurons (positive for NF) from glia (negative for NF).

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed by numerous cell types of the central nervous system (CNS) including astrocytes and ependymal cells. GFAP has also been found to be expressed in glomeruli and peritubular fibroblasts, Leydig cells of the testis, keratinocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes and stellate cells of the pancreas and liver. GFAP is a type III IF protein that is closely related to its non-epithelial family members, vimentin, desmin, and peripherin, which are all involved in the structure and function of the cell’s cytoskeleton. GFAP is thought to help to maintain astrocyte mechanical strength, as well as the shape of cells.

Type III intermediate filaments are highly conserved and contain three domains, named the head, rod and tail domains. This rod domain coils around that of another filament to form a dimer, with the N-terminal and C-terminal of each filament aligned. Type III filaments such as GFAP are capable of forming both homodimers and heterodimers; GFAP can polymerize with other type III proteins or with neurofilament light chain protein (NF-L). Interestingly, GFAP and other type III IF proteins cannot assemble with keratins, the type I and II intermediate filaments: in cells that express both proteins, two separate intermediate filament networks form.

To form networks, the initial GFAP dimers combine to make staggered tetramers, which are the basic subunits of an intermediate filament. The non-helical head and tail domains are necessary for filament formation. The head and tail regions have greater variability of sequence and structure. In spite of this increased variability, the head of GFAP contains two conserved arginines and an aromatic residue that are required for proper assembly.

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed by numerous cell types of the central nervous system (CNS) including astrocytes and ependymal cells. GFAP has also been found to be expressed in glomeruli and peritubular fibroblasts, Leydig cells of the testis, keratinocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes and stellate cells of the pancreas and liver. GFAP is a type III IF protein that is closely related to its non-epithelial family members, vimentin, desmin, and peripherin, which are all involved in the structure and function of the cell’s cytoskeleton. GFAP is thought to help to maintain astrocyte mechanical strength, as well as the shape of cells.

Type III intermediate filaments are highly conserved and contain three domains, named the head, rod and tail domains. This rod domain coils around that of another filament to form a dimer, with the N-terminal and C-terminal of each filament aligned. Type III filaments such as GFAP are capable of forming both homodimers and heterodimers; GFAP can polymerize with other type III proteins or with neurofilament light chain protein (NF-L). Interestingly, GFAP and other type III IF proteins cannot assemble with keratins, the type I and II intermediate filaments: in cells that express both proteins, two separate intermediate filament networks form.

To form networks, the initial GFAP dimers combine to make staggered tetramers, which are the basic subunits of an intermediate filament. The non-helical head and tail domains are necessary for filament formation. The head and tail regions have greater variability of sequence and structure. In spite of this increased variability, the head of GFAP contains two conserved arginines and an aromatic residue that are required for proper assembly.

Glial fibrillary acidic protein is an intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed by numerous cell types of the central nervous system (CNS) including astrocytes and ependymal cells. GFAP has also been found to be expressed in glomeruli and peritubular fibroblasts, Leydig cells of the testis, keratinocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes and stellate cells of the pancreas and liver. GFAP is a type III IF protein that is closely related to its non-epithelial family members, vimentin, desmin, and peripherin, which are all involved in the structure and function of the cell’s cytoskeleton. GFAP is thought to help to maintain astrocyte mechanical strength, as well as the shape of cells.

Type III intermediate filaments are highly conserved and contain three domains, named the head, rod and tail domains. This rod domain coils around that of another filament to form a dimer, with the N-terminal and C-terminal of each filament aligned. Type III filaments such as GFAP are capable of forming both homodimers and heterodimers; GFAP can polymerize with other type III proteins or with neurofilament protein (NF-L). Interestingly, GFAP and other type III IF proteins cannot assemble with keratins, the type I and II intermediate filaments: in cells that express both proteins, two separate intermediate filament networks form.

To form networks, the initial GFAP dimers combine to make staggered tetramers, which are the basic subunits of an intermediate filament. The non-helical head and tail domains are necessary for filament formation. The head and tail regions have greater variability of sequence and structure. In spite of this increased variability, the head of GFAP contains two conserved arginines and an aromatic residue that are required for proper assembly.

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed by numerous cell types of the central nervous system (CNS) including astrocytes and ependymal cells. GFAP has also been found to be expressed in glomeruli and peritubular fibroblasts, Leydig cells of the testis, keratinocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes and stellate cells of the pancreas and liver. GFAP is a type III IF protein that is closely related to its non-epithelial family members, vimentin, desmin, and peripherin, which are all involved in the structure and function of the cell’s cytoskeleton. GFAP is thought to help to maintain astrocyte mechanical strength, as well as the shape of the cells.

Type III intermediate filaments are highly conserved and contain three domains: the head, rod and tail domains. This rod domain coils around that of another filament to form a dimer, with the N-terminal and C-terminal of each filament aligned. Type III filaments such as GFAP are capable of forming both homodimers and heterodimers; GFAP can polymerize with other type III proteins or with neurofilament light chain protein (NF-L). Interestingly, GFAP and other type III IF proteins cannot assemble with keratins, the type I and II intermediate filaments: in cells that express both proteins, two separate intermediate filament networks form.

To form networks, the initial GFAP dimers combine to make staggered tetramers, which are the basic subunits of an intermediate filament. The non-helical head and tail domains are necessary for filament formation. The head and tail regions have greater variability of sequence and structure. In spite of this increased variability, the head of GFAP contains two conserved arginines and an aromatic residue that are required for proper assembly.

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed by numerous cell types of the central nervous system (CNS) including astrocytes and ependymal cells. GFAP has also been found to be expressed in glomeruli and peritubular fibroblasts, Leydig cells of the testis, keratinocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes and stellate cells of the pancreas and liver. GFAP is a type III IF protein that is closely related to its non-epithelial family members, vimentin, desmin, and peripherin, which are all involved in the structure and function of the cell’s cytoskeleton. GFAP is thought to help to maintain astrocyte mechanical strength, as well as the shape of the cells.

Type III intermediate filaments are highly conserved and contain three domains: the head, rod and tail domains. This rod domain coils around that of another filament to form a dimer, with the N-terminal and C-terminal of each filament aligned. Type III filaments such as GFAP are capable of forming both homodimers and heterodimers; GFAP can polymerize with other type III proteins or with neurofilament light chain protein (NF-L). Interestingly, GFAP and other type III IF proteins cannot assemble with keratins, the type I and II intermediate filaments: in cells that express both proteins, two separate intermediate filament networks form.

To form networks, the initial GFAP dimers combine to make staggered tetramers, which are the basic subunits of an intermediate filament. The non-helical head and tail domains are necessary for filament formation. The head and tail regions have greater variability of sequence and structure. In spite of this increased variability, the head of GFAP contains two conserved arginines and an aromatic residue that are required for proper assembly.

Synaptophysin, also known as major synaptic vesicle protein P38, is encoded by the SYP gene in humans and is located on the short arm of the X chromosome. Synaptophysin is located in neuroendocrine cells as well as all neurons in the CNS that participate in synaptic transmission. It is a 38 kD protein that contains four transmembrane domains. Synaptophysin is a synaptic vesicle glycoprotein, and interacts with synaptobrevin. It has been implicated in X-linked mental retardation and can be used as a specific marker for cells of the adrenal medulla and pancreatic islets. As such, it can be used to identify tumors that are derived from those cells, including neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, medulloblastoma, and others.

Synaptophysin, also known as major synaptic vesicle protein P38, is encoded by the SYP gene in humans and is located on the short arm of the X chromosome. Synaptophysin is located in neuroendocrine cells as well as all neurons in the CNS that participate in synaptic transmission. It is a 38 kD protein that contains four transmembrane domains. Synaptophysin is a synaptic vesicle glycoprotein, and interacts with synaptobrevin. It has been implicated in X-linked mental retardation and can be used as a specific marker for cells of the adrenal medulla and pancreatic islets. As such, it can be used to identify tumors that are derived from those cells, including neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, medulloblastoma, and others.