Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist inhibits the activity of IL-1 by binding to its receptor and has no IL-1 like activity._x000B__x000B_Genetic variation in IL1RN is associated with susceptibility to microvascular complications of diabetes type 4 (MVCD4). These are pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. They include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults. It is characterized by vascular permeability and increased tissue ischemia and angiogenesis._x000B__x000B_Defects in IL1RN are the cause of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist deficiency (DIRA), also known as deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist. Autoinflammatory diseases manifest inflammation without evidence of infection, high-titer autoantibodies, or autoreactive T-cells. DIRA is a rare, autosomal recessive, genetic autoinflammatory disease that results in sterile multifocal osteomyelitis (bone inflammation in multiple places), periostitis (inflammation of the membrane surrounding the bones), and pustulosis (due to skin inflammation) from birth.
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