Identification of CD4 on human helper/inducer T cells expressing the 60,000 M.W. surface antigen (HLA class II reactive). CD4 is present in low density on monocytes. Anti-human CD28 binds the 44kDa MW cell surface protein on the surface of most T cells. CD28 acts as the ligand for the B7/BB-1 molecule on the surface of activated B cells. B7/BB-1 co-stimulates T cells through CD28, along with CD2 and CD3. CD28 antigen is a disulfide-linked homodimeric glycoprotein. The CD28 antigen is present on approximately 60%-80% of lymphocytes (95% of CD4 and 50% of CD8 lymphocytes). CD28 regulates the expression of cytokines by T cells, not only IL-2, but also IL-1 alpha and CSF-1, usually synthesized by accessory cells. CD28 functions as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) for certain T cell subsets.
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