Sphingolipids and their metabolic products, including ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P),1 are important signaling molecules in many biological processes. Ceramide has been is one of the key elements regulating apoptotic responses. Ceramide has been reported as a regulator of several protein kinases and phosphatases, including ceramide-activated protein kinase, protein phosphatase, and protein kinase C. Sphingosine, a metabolite of ceramide, might also play a role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Sphingosine inhibits several protein kinases, including protein kinase C and Ca2 -calmodulin-dependent kinase II. S1P regulates many biological processes, including mitogenesis, differentiation, migration, and suppression of apoptosis.
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