The ion channels activated by glutamate are typically divided into two classes. Those that are sensitive to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) are designated NMDA receptors (NMDAR) while those activated by a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxalone propionic acid (AMPA) are known as AMPA receptors (AMPAR). The AMPAR are comprised of four distinct Glutamate Receptor Subunits designated (GluR1-4) and they play key roles in virtually all excitatory neurotransmission in the brain (KeinŠnen et al., 1990; Hollmann and Heinemann, 1994). The GluR1 subunit is widely expressed throughout the nervous system. GluR1 is potentiated by phosphorylation at Ser831 which has been shown to be mediated by either PKC or CAM kinase II (McGlade-Mcculloh et al., 1993; Mammen et al., 1999; Roche et al., 1996). In addition, phosphorylation of this site has been linked to synaptic plasticity as well and learning and memory (Soderling and Derkach, 2000).
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