Interferons (IFNs) are involved in a multitude of immune interactions during viral infections and play a major role in both the induction and regulation of innate and adaptive antiviral mechanisms. During infection, host-virus interactions signal downstream molecules such as transcription factors such as IFN regulatory factor-3 (IRF3) which can act to stimulate transcription of IFN-a/b genes. IRF7 has been shown to play a role in the transcriptional activation of virus-inducible cellular genes, including interferon beta chain genes. IRF7 play a major role in the innate immune pathway, interacting with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor proteins MyD88 and Tirp/TRAM and functioning as an intermediate TLR4 and TLR9 signaling. There are at least four differentially spliced isoforms of IRF7, although their function has not been clearly established.
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