Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) catalyse the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the glycerol backbone of lysophospholipids . In addition to playing a crutial role in the synthesis of structural membrane components the LPLATs are also implicated in cellular signalling responses for cytokines, growth factors and other agonists. Cellular signalling through the interleukin 1 receptor in human mesangial cells and EL-4 cells proceeds by the activation of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT). Activation of LPAAT by interleukin 1 results in the generation of unsaturated phosphatidic acid species, that are crucial to the generation of diacylglycerol and interleukin 1 signalling. LPLATs are also involved in signalling for increased interleukin 2 synthesis through the T cell antigen receptor. Activation of T-cells via anti-CD3 stimulation has been shown to increase incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine via lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase. Activation of this enzyme is essential for the sustained activation and translocation of protein kinase C.
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