Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric enzyme and is the most abundant phosphatase specific for serine- and threonine phosphorylation in mammalian cells. PP2A consists of a dimeric core enzyme composed of the structural A and catalytic C subunits, and a regulatory B subunit. When the PP2A catalytic C subunit associates with the A and B subunits several species of holoenzymes are produced with distinct functions and characteristics. The A subunit, a founding member of the HEAT repeat protein family (huntington-elongation-A subunit-TOR), is the scaffold required for the formation of the heterotrimeric complex. When the A subunit binds it alters the enzymatic activity of the catalytic subunit, even if the B subunit is absent. Multicellular eukaryotes express four classes of variable regulatory subunits: B (PR55), B′ (B56 or PR61), B″ (PR72), and Bâ€´ (PR93/PR110), with at least 16 members in these subfamilies. In addition, accessory proteins and posttranslational modifications (such as methylation) control PP2A subunit associations and activities. Dephosphorylation of substrates targeted by PP2A plays a vital role in a large variety of cellular processes including signal transduction, regulation of the cell cycle, gene expression and development.
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