Microglia are the resident parenchymal myeloid cells of the CNS, and play an important role in development, homeostasis, disease, and injury. TMEM119 is a transmembrane protein and was identified as a microglia-specific marker in both mouse and human CNS. Moreover, TMEM119 immunoreactivity has been exclusively detected on a subset of Iba1(+) CD68(+) microglia with ramified and amoeboid morphologies in the brains of neurodegenerative diseases. TMEM119 also plays an important role in bone formation and normal bone mineralization. It promotes the differentiation of myoblasts into osteoblasts. and it may induce the commitment and differentiation of myoblasts into osteoblasts. TMEM119 is also essential for normal spermatogenesis and late testicular differentiation.
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