Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a highly bioactive lipid that has a myriad of biological effects both intracellularly as a second messenger and extracellularly by binding to the S1P(1-5)/G-protein-coupled receptors of the endothelial differentiation gene family. Intracellularly, at least two enzymes, sphingosine kinase (1 and 2) and S1P phosphatase, regulate the activity of S1P by governing the phosphorylation of S1P. Regulation of hS1Pase1 with the resultant changes in cellular and secreted S1P has important implications in cell proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis.
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