Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a highly bioactive lipid that has a myriad of biological effects both intracellularly as a second messenger and extracellularly by binding to the S1P(1-5)/G-protein-coupled receptors of the endothelial differentiation gene family. Intracellularly, at least two enzymes, sphingosine kinase (1 and 2) and S1P phosphatase, regulate the activity of S1P by governing the phosphorylation of S1P. SPPase2 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The enzymatic activity and localization of SPPase2 are similar to SPPase1. The tissue expression of SPPase2 was different from that of SPPase1. SPPase2 is an important member of the SPPase family which play a role in attenuating intracellular S1P signaling.
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